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IFE PsychologIA
An International Journal

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Volume 11, Number 1, March 2003



Reference Taking in Employee Selection: Predication or Verification

Bill B. Puplampu, Chris Lewis, David Hogan



During the 1980’s, researchers and practitioners were engaged in a debate on the usefulness of reference checks in employee selection. This debate took as its point of departure, the results of several studies, which cast doubt on the predictive validity and reliability of references. The general conclusions were that references being subjective and unreliable have no place in the drive for more objective selection. This paper, however asks a number of critical questions: if references are so poor at predicting job performance, why are they endemic to selection systems? Do prospective employers really expect references to predict performance? The study reported here was conducted to examine the perceived purpose of references in selection and to assess whether studies, which judge references on the basis of predictive validity are actually testing a predictive tool. Findings indicate that references are used as a means of verification not as tools of prediction.



Determinants of Post-Retirement Satisfaction among Ghanaian Teachers

James A. Opare & Kofi Addison



The purpose of this study was to find out why so many Ghanaian teachers retired voluntarily in the late 1990’s, whether those who retired were feeling happy, and what factors determined the retirees’ satisfaction with life after retirement.

Paper-and-pencil questionnaires were used to collect data from a non-probability sample of 225 retirees. Multiple regression procedures were used as the major analytical tools. The results of the study indicated that the teachers sought and obtained voluntary retirement as an escape from an impending government policy to withdraw End of Service Benefits for retirees. It was found that majority of the retirees were happy and satisfied with their post-retirement lives, and that having a network of friends and relatives, having a viable income, being engaged in an activity one was enthused in, and having an accommodation one liked, made a retiree satisfied with his or her post-retirement life. Implications for employers and government have been drawn.



Family Size and Rural Poverty -in the Kwahu South District in Ghana

Alex Somuah Obeng



Rural Poverty is one of the greatest social problems confronting the world today. The problem is more pronounced in the developing countries. Ghana is no exception to this global problem of rural poverty. Ghana as a nation has adopted a lot of measures to address poverty. From the early 1980's to 2002, the country has seen Economic Recovery Programme Structural Adjustment Programme, Vision 2020 and Emergency Social Relief Fund just to alleviate poverty. But a little has been achieved in this direction. It is believed that the rate of population growth (large family size) is thwarting the efforts at alleviating poverty. It was therefore the aim of the study to establish the impact of large family size on the socio- economic well being of the rural people. It was identify that large families were unable to provide adequately the social and economic needs of their members (example education and health), high level of consumption resulting in no savings and investment due to high dependency ratios and inadequate access to land to increase production, hence most rural large families are poor.



Long-Term Growth and Fiscal Development Policies: The Ghanaian Experience

P. Kojo Acquah



The article aims at clarifying the relationship between long-term growth and fiscal policy variables. Growth equations are derived from a structural macroeconomic model. The model developed here postulates that the steady-growth rate of output becomes endogenous and is influenced by government policies.

The regression analysis finds that a large part of economic growth performance is related to the extent of favourable economic openness and the quality of fiscal policies.

In particular, under the necessary assumptions, the following are found to be growth-promoting:

-        increase in tax-to-GDP ratio;

-   reduction in current expenditure-to-GDP ratio;

-        the reorientation of expenditures in favour of basic infrastructure, maintenance, education and health;

-   reduction in fiscal deficit-to-GDP ratio.



Out of School Youths in Ibadan: Its Psychological Implication and the Way Out

Osiki Jonathan Ohiorenuan



The identification of young persons who have been to school but had left at various stages of the education cycle was part of the focus of this investigation. The study also found out the factors predicating school dropout with a concomitant discussion on some possible ways for ameliorating the phenomena Three research methodologies which are interviews, focus group discussion and opinion survey were conducted using 827 participants            purposively sampled from University of Ibadan community, Eleyele, Agbowo, and Sango areas. The participants age range was between 15 and 38 years while their mean age was 25.87 years. The study revealed that approximately thirty-eight (37.6%) of all the youths attended and finished secondary school education. Sixty-five percent and 84.94% indicated that they were neither happy nor satisfied with their present status. Since school dropout creates mental agonies, psychological traumatization and self-esteem difficulties for the youths, part of the recommendation was that the provision of education to children of ages 1-18 years should be the direct responsibility of the Federal government ,and should not be politicized. The junior second school (JSS) curriculum should be made functional and practical.



Effects of Behavioural and Lecture-Discussion Techniques on Job Interview Skills of High School Adolescents in Nigeria

Samuel O. Salami.



This study examined the effects of behavioural and lecture-discussion methods on the job interview skills of secondary school adolescents. 118 SS2 students (males = 60, females = 58) randomly selected from three co-educational secondary schools in Ibadan, Oyo State participated in the study. A 3x2 factorial pretest-posttest experimental design was adopted for the study. There were two experimental groups and a control. Job Interview Rating Scale for assessing the students’ job interview skills was administered before and after the five-week experiment. The data derived from the pre-post treatment assessments were subjected to a 3x2 factorial analysis of covariance using pretest scores as covariates. The differences between the groups were established through the use of t-test on the Y adjusted means. The results indicated that the two treatment methods (Behavioural and Lecture-discussion techniques) were more effective than the control in improving the students’ job interview skills. Sex had no significant effect on treatment outcome while there was no significant interaction effects of sex and treatment on job interview skills. Based on these findings, the need to incorporate the two treatment methods in the school counselling programmes are highlighted.



Correlates of Examination Cheating Behaviour Among University Students

Alarape, A.I. & Onakoya, A.Y



Cheating is gradually becoming a means of getting ahead academically. Past research indicates who cheats and reasons for cheating. This study sought to find out some psychological correlates of examination cheating behaviour among university students in Nigeria. Cheating behaviour data was obtained with a survey design using two hundred and fifty [250] subjects with a mean age of twenty-three [23]. Results revealed that age, and self-esteem had a significant positive relationship with examination cheating behaviour while locus of control and need for achievement had a significant negative relationship with examination cheating behaviour. These findings were discussed, particularly in terms of various personality differences of students, which suggest different reasons why students cheat.



Mutilation and Theft of Library Materials: The Perception and Reactions of Students

Ajayi, N. A. & Omotayo, B. O.



Mutilation and theft in libraries is a menace that has persisted, and it is indeed a global problem. However, the worsening state of libraries in Nigeria appears to have aggravated its intensity and the consequent detrimental impact. This study attempts to investigate the perception of students on the dynamics of book theft and mutilation, including its effects and impact on the library, its services and clientele. Using a structured questionnaire distributed to a sample population of undergraduate students of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife and a stratified focus group discussion (FGD), information was elicited on their perception of the methods of theft, attitudes to and perceived implications of theft on academic performance and library use, and suggestions on ways of curbing the menace, as well as on their demographic, economic and social background

The results reveal that insensitivity to the need of other users, high cost of books, non-detection of previous acts of theft, incessant power failure are some of the factors responsible for mutilation and theft of library materials. It was also revealed that students are aware that mutilation and theft prevent effective use of the library, deprive users of vital information, including information from recommended texts, and hence impact negatively on the academic life of the users. The library should provide more copies of recommended textbooks, provide more security men who also should be more vigilant, and ensure that stiff penalties are meted out to any offending clientele.



Support For Organizational Reproductive Health Policies: Is Sexism A Problem?

Udegbe, I. Bola



This study focuses on the realities of organizational policies and practices for women’s reproductive health in Nigeria. It examines the relationship between sexism and several indices of support for organizational reproductive health policies, particularly those relating to family-friendly policies. Data was collected from 419 (63.5%) female and 241 (36.5%) male employees from private and public organizations in Lagos, Nigeria. Using a series of tests of differences and association, it was found that (1) there are sex differences in the respondents’ support for organizational reproductive health policies for female employees; (2) within each gender category, those with higher levels of benevolent sexism exhibited higher levels of support for family friendly policies; (3) hostile sexism more than benevolent sexism related to lower levels of support for the policies, and (4) there were gender differences in hostile and benevolent sexism scores. Implications of the findings were discussed and suggestions were made for intervention.



Traumatic Life Experience

Grace Yawo Gadagbui



The article reports on traumatic events on six clients who visited the Language and Speech Centre of the University of Education, Winneba, between1994 and 2002 of which the writer is the clinician. The aim of the centre is to correct clients’ speech disorders and to counsel families. However, cases on rape, effects of maternal stress and episodes of death due to cancer in a family were other traumatic events reported. Findings revealed that post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) such as “flashbacks” of the painful experiences not withstanding impact negatively on families and clinicians. Recommendations for public awareness as to the roles of counsellors’ and access to counselling centers have been stressed.


Risk Assessment: How Crucial in Determining Child’s Susceptibility to Abuse in Nigeria

Mbakogu, I.A.



There is a global concern to curtail the prevalence of child abuse. However, certain difficulties are posed in meeting this objective in Nigeria, because child social workers often lack the practical or theoretical skills for detecting those children that are susceptible to abuse and thus, in need of early protective measures. This paper is therefore concerned with isolating those risk assessment procedures or factors based on foreign research that would assist professionals in identifying children that are potentially at risk of abuse from parents or guardians and assess their relevance for effective management and reduction of cases of child abuse in Nigeria.



Impact of Female Genital Mutilation on Sexual Functioning, Self-Esteem and Marital Instability of Women in Ajegunle

Osinowo, H.O. & Taiwo, A.O



This cross-sectional research examined the impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) on marital instability, self-esteem, sexual functioning and marital satisfaction of women. A total of 99 women drawn from Ajegunle area of Lagos formed the study group. They were divided into 2 groups: circumcised women (N=53) and uncircumcised women (N=46). All participants responded to self-reported questionnaires that assessed sexual satisfaction, self-esteem and marital instability. Results show that the uncircumcised women significantly reported better sexual functioning and marital satisfaction than the circumcised women (t=9.4, df= 97, p<.01) thus confirming the presence of psycho-sexual dysfunction among the circumcised women. Circumcised women significantly reported higher level of marital instability (t=5.4, df= 97, p<.01) and expressed statistically significant lower self-esteem (t=2.6, df=97, p<.01) compared with the uncircumcised women. It was concluded that FGM has devastating psychosexual influence on women and should be discouraged. Awareness about the adverse consequences of FGM should be intensified and psychological treatment especially post-traumatic stress disorder intervention for circumcised women is recommended.



Law Practice: Myth of the Born-Lawyer and Psychological Perception of Advocacy in Nigeria

S.B. Odunsi



Over time, legal practice in Nigeria has been held to require some peculiar natural or congenital attributes. The belief that, “a Lawyer is born, not made” naturally creates a psychological feeling of inability of inadequacy in the minds of very many law students aspiring to the bar. Thus before graduation such have emotionally disqualified themselves from active legal practice under the induced belief that they are not naturally equipped.

This paper aims to solemnly examine the phenomenon and seek to achieve a re-orientation of the mental attitude that a good lawyer is primarily packaged in heaven. The writer makes use of legal literature- primary and secondary; findings of his discussions, observations, interactions and general experiences spanning about twenty years as a law student, practising lawyer and law teacher.

While the primary focus of the paper is Nigeria the issues raised therein are equally applicable to other jurisdictions; this much has been corroborated by the works of learned writers, some of which are utilised in this paper.


Experience above the Glass Ceiling: A Study Of Female Executives

Chovwen, C.O.



The study examined the experience of female executives who have risen above the glass ceiling in male dominated work environment. A total of 230 male and female executive participated in the study. They had spent a minimum of five years in their present position, which allowed information from a wide range of organizational experience to be collected. Results indicated that female executives in such environments perceived they are not well recognized and as result they do not receive enough cooperation and support from colleagues. This perception is of low acceptance which has implication for the development of women the organisation and the nation in general. This situation calls for a reconstruction of practices and polices within and outside the work setting that could impinge on full expression of women’s potentials.



Reliability and Validity of a Short Scale of Attitude toward Christianity among 12-19 year olds in South Africa Prof. John E. Williams

Christopher.A.Lewis,Leslie.J.Francis & Shiley Kerr



To facilitate cross-cultural research in the psychology of religion, the reliability and validity of the 7-item short form of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity was examined among a sample of 453 young people aged between 12-19 years old from standards six, seven, eight, nine and ten attending a secondary school in South Africa. Data analyses support the reliability and validity of the scale and commend it for further use among South African samples.


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